1600: Scotland adopts the Gregorian calendar.
1603: The Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.
1614: John Napier invents logarithms and publishes a book promoting their use in mathematics.
1615: The Jesuit John Ogilvy is hanged for saying Mass
1618: James VI forces episcopacy on the Church of Scotland through the Five Articles of Perth.
1624: Plague epidemic in Edinburgh.
1633: Education Act of 1633 ordains that there should be a school in every parish.
1637: Riots in Edinburgh in protest at the introduction of a new Prayer Book.
1638: Scottish Covenanters rebel against Charles I.
1643: The Solemn League and Covenant promises Scots army to aid English parliamentarians against the king.
1650: Surrender of Edinburgh castle to invading forces of Oliver Cromwell.
1651-1660: Scotland is incorporated into the English Commonwealth and Protectorate.
1660: The monarchy is restored and Scotland resumes its status as a separate kingdom.
1661: First Scottish newspaper published by Thomas Sydserf.
1670: Glasgow displaces Aberdeen and Dundee to become Scotland's second largest trade city. (behind Edinburgh)
1678: First regular stagecoach from Edinburgh to Glasgow.
1679: Duke of Monmouth defeats Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge.
1682: The National Library of Scotland is founded.
1689: Jacobite highlanders defeat army of William III at Killiecrankie, but are halted at Dunkeld.
1689: The Claim of Right and the re-establishment of Presbyterianism.
1692: Massacre of Glencoe. Clan Campbell siding with the King murder thirty-eight members of Clan McDonald - after spending two weeks in their hospitality.
1695: The Bank of Scotland is created by Act of Parliament.
Bank of Scotland - £20 note