Alexander III was the ruler of Scotland during the 1200s, this time period consisted of prosperity and peace. The country had good relations with England. They were trading with both the French and English and monasteries and abbeys were flourishing. In the Battle of Lards, Alexander defeated the Norwegians and expanded his territory to the Western Isles. Alexander's reign ended abruptly when he fell off a horse and died, leaving the 3 year old Margaret, Maid of Norway next in line to take over the crown.
This alliance was the first of many beneficial agreements between Scotland and France. Both nations agreed to assist one another if England ever tried to attack either country. This alliance between the two nations would continue to grow stronger as years went by.
He is a renowned, celebrated national hero of Scotland who died fighting for Scottish independence from England. Wallace led a guerilla war against King Edward I and led his Scottish army into
two major battles, The Battle of Stirling Bridge which the Scots won and The Battle of Falkirk. Once William Wallace was captured he was tied down to a piece of wood, dragged through the streets and had his head hacked off. The classy English men also hacked his body into pieces.
The Battle of Bannockburn
This battle featured King Edward II of England versus the Scottish King Robert the Bruce. The Scottish army was outnumbered 3 to 1 but still came out victorious. The battle was extremely bloody and there were heavy losses on both sides, it was said that by the end of the battle, the Bannockburn banks was filled with thousands of dead men, horses and a long bloody trail which stretched out for miles.
The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton
By 1328, the Bruce had been fighting England for over 20 years for independence and with King Edward II no longer in power, the Bruce sent James Douglas to invade the northern region of England. James succeeded and the English decided to come to terms with the Scots on a treaty. The treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton acknowledged King Robert I as the King of Scotland and finally gave Scotland its independence.
Robert II would become the first Stuart King in 1371, followed by 15 other Stuart monarchs. Some of the Kings and Queens that ruled are Robert II, Robert III, James I, James II, James III, James IV, James V and Mary Queen of Scots.