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Scottish Native Trees - common trees across Scotland

Species
 
  Characteristics
 
Picture
Alder
 
Alnus glutinosa Fast growing, small to medium sized tree. Requires good light.  Alder trees
Ash


 
Fraxinus excelsior Large tree that can live for over 300 years. Nutrient and light demanding. Prefers moist, neutral, rich soil.

 Ash Tree

Aspen
 
Populus tremulus
 
Medium sized tree. Lives to around 100 years. Slow growing tree.  Aspen trees
Beech

 
Fagus sylvatica Large tree. Can to live to over 300 years. Gregarious in habit, growing in small groups or forming large woodlands.
 
 Beech Trees
Silver Birch
 
Betula pendula Birch is one of the most versatile of Scottish native trees. It makes a magnificent spectacle en-masse as a single species woodland - changing colour in the winter sunshine from purple to almost orange and russet.  Silver Birch
Crab apple
 

 
Malus sylvestris Occurs naturally in old woodland throughout the lowlands but is not common in the north-east.   Crab apple
Wych elm


 
Ulmus glabra  Scotland's only native elm.  It arrioved in Scotlan before the Romans introduced the common elm to England. The wych elm is not as tall as the common elm but is more robust - both live for up to 500 years.  Wych elm
Field maple
 

 
Acer campestre Field maple is not common in Scotland. It is used mainly as a shrub in hedges rather than a small tree.   Field maple
Holly
 

 
Ilex aquifolium Holly is a small hardy tree growing up to 15 metres. It is one of the few Scottish native evergreen trees and is notable for its prickly leaves and red berries.  Scottish Holly
Common oak
 
Quercus robur More common than the Sessile oak in the South of Scotland. A large tree than can survive for 1000 years.  Common oak
Sessile oak
 
Quercus petraea More common than the Common oak in the North of Scotland. A large tree than can survive for 1000 years.  Sessile oak
Rowan
 
Sorbus aucuparia Small tree. Widespread through Scotland up to 1000m altitude  Rowan tree
Scots pine
 

 
Pinus sylvestris Scots pine is the most important British coniferous tree. A large long-lived tree - growing up to 45m and living up to 450 years.  Scots pine
Willows Salix sp.
 
A wide variety, from the large White willow to the shrub like Grey Willow. All willows prefer damp wet sites.

 
 Willow trees
Yew
 
Taxus baccata Yew is a primitive native evergreen conifer that can outlive all other native species in Scotland. Many old trees in churchyards are over 1000 years old.   Yew Tree


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